|Native to||United States|
Pre-contact distribution of Keresan languages
Keresan (//), also Keres (//), is a Native American language, spoken by the Keres Pueblo people in New Mexico. Depending on the analysis, Keresan is considered a small language family or a language isolate with several dialects. The varieties of each of the seven Keres pueblos are mutually intelligible with its closest neighbors. There are significant differences between the Western and Eastern groups, which are sometimes counted as separate languages.
In 2007, there was a total of 10,670 speakers.
- Eastern Keres: total of 4,580 speakers (1990 census)
- Western Keres: total of 3,391 speakers (1990 census)
Keres is now considered a language isolate. In the past, Edward Sapir grouped it together with a Hokan–Siouan stock. Morris Swadesh suggested a connection with Wichita. Joseph Greenberg grouped Keres with Siouan, Yuchi, Caddoan, and Iroquoian in a superstock called Keresiouan. None of these proposals has been validated by subsequent linguistic research.
Keresan has between 42 and 45 consonant sounds, and around 40 vowel sounds, adding up to a total of about 85 phonemes, depending on the analysis and the language variety. Based on the classification in the World Atlas of Language Structures, Keres is a language with a large consonant inventory.
The great number of consonants relates to the three-way distinction between voiceless, aspirated and ejective consonants (e.g. /t tʰ tʼ/), and to the larger than average number of fricatives (i.e. /s sʼ ʂ ʂʼ ʃ ʃʼ h/) and affricates, the latter also showing the three-way distinction found in stops.
The large number of vowels derives from a distinction made between long and short vowels (e.g. /e eː/), as well as from the presence of tones and voicelessness. Thus, a single vowel quality may occur with seven distinct realizations: /é è e̥ éː èː êː ěː/, all of which are used to distinguish words in the language.
The chart below contains the consonants of the proto-Keresan (or pre-Keresan) from Miller & Davis (1963) based on a comparison of Acoma, Santa Ana, and Santo Domingo, as well as other features of the dialects compiled from The Language of Santa Ana Pueblo (1964), Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics (1987), and The Phonemes of Keresan (1946), and the Grammar of Laguna Keres (2005).
Labial Alveolar Palatal Retroflex Velar Glottal Plosive voiceless p t c k ʔ aspirated pʰ tʰ cʰ kʰ ejective pʼ tʼ cʼ kʼ Fricative voiceless s ʃ ʂ h ejective sʼ ʃʼ ʂʼ Affricate voiceless ts tʃ tʂ aspirated tsʰ tʃʰ tʂʰ ejective tsʼ tʃʼ tʂʼ Approximant voiced w j ɽ glottalized wˀ jˀ ɽˀ Nasal voiced m n ɲ glottalized mˀ nˀ ɲˀ
Keresan vowels have a phonemic distinction in duration: all vowels can be long or short. Additionally, short vowels can also be voiceless. The vowel chart below contains the vowel phonemes and allophones from the information of the Keresan languages combined from The Language of Santa Ana Pueblo (1964), The Phonemes of Keresan (1946), and Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics (1987).
|Mid-front||/eː/||[ eː ]||/e/||[e ɛ æ]||[e̥]|
|Mid-central||/ɨː/||[əː ɨː]||/ɨ/||[ə ɨ ɤ]||[ɨ̥]|
|Open||/ɑː/||[aː ɑː]||/ɑ/||[a ɑ]||[ḁ]|
|/uː/||[uː]||/u/||[u ʊ o]||[ʊ̥]|
- Western Keres does not have phonemic /oː/ or /o/, though both vowels may occur phonetically. Eastern Keres words containing /o/ show /au/ in Western Keres. For instance, the first vowel in the word-sentence Sraúka̠cha̠ – “I see you”:
- Kotyit Keres: [ʂóːkʰɑ̥tʃʰɑ̥]
- Kʼawaika Keres: [ʂɑ̌ukʰɑ̥tʃʰɑ̥]
All Keresan short vowels may be devoiced in certain positions. The phonemic status of these vowels is controversial. Maring (1967) considers them to be phonemes of Áákʼu Keres, whereas other authors disagree. There are phonetic grounds for vowel devoicing based on the environment they occur, for instance word-finally, but there are also exceptions. Vowels in final position are nearly always voiceless and medial vowels occurring between voiced consonants, after nasals and ejectives are nearly always voiced.
- Word-final devoicing: [pɑ̌ːkʊ̥] because
- Word-medial devoicing: [ʔìpʰi̥ʃɑ́] white paint
|High||[tɨ́j] , [áwáʔáwá]||here, matrilineal uncle|
|Falling||[ʔêː] , [hêːk'a]||and, whole part|
Most Keresan syllables take a CV(V) shape. The maximal syllable structure is CCVVC and the minimal syllable is CV. In native Keresan words, only a glottal stop /ʔ/ ⟨ʼ⟩ can close a syllable, but some loanwords from Spanish have syllables that end in a consonant, mostly a nasal (i.e. /m n/ but words containing these sequences are rare in the language.
|CV||[sʼà], [ʔɪ]shv́v||I have it, left|
|CVV||[mùː]dedza , a[táù]shi||young boy, cooking pot|
|CCV||[ʃkʰí]srátsʼa||I'm not fat|
|CVC||í[miʔ], [kùm]banêeru||expression of fear, workmate (Spanish "compañero")|
Due to extensive vowel devoicing, several Keresan words may be perceived as ending in consonants or even containing consonant clusters.
- Word-internal cluster: yʼâakạ srûunị ‘stomach’ /jˀɑ̂ːkḁʂûːni/ > [jɑ̂ːkḁʂûːni] ~ [jɑ̂ːkʂûːni]
- Word-final coda: úwàakạ ‘baby’; /úwɑ̀ːkḁ/ > [úwɑ̀ːkʰḁ] ~ [úwɑ̀ːkʰ]
The only sequence of consonants (i.e. consonant cluster) that occurs in native Keresan words is a sequence of a fricative /ʃ ʂ/ and a stop or affricate. Clusters are restricted to beginnings of syllables (i.e. the syllable onset). When the alveolo-palatal consonant /ʃ/ occurs as C1, it combines with alveolar and palatal C2, whereas the retroflex alveolar /ʂ/ precedes bilabial and velar C2s, which suggest a complementary distribution. Consonant clusters may occur both word-initially and word-medially.
'plot of land'
Traditional Keresan beliefs postulate that Keres is a sacred language that must exist only in its spoken form. The language's religious connotation and years of persecution of Pueblo religion by European colonizers may also explain why no unified orthographic convention exists for Keresan. However, a practical spelling system has been developed for Laguna (Kʼawaika) and more recently for Acoma (Áakʼu) Keres, both of which are remarkably consistent.
In the Keres spelling system, each symbol represents a single phoneme. The letters ⟨c q z f⟩ and sometimes also ⟨v⟩ are not used. Digraphs represent both palatal consonants (written using a sequence of C and ⟨y⟩), and retroflex consonants, which are represented using a sequence of C and the letter ⟨r⟩. These graphemes used for writing Western Keres are shown between ⟨...⟩ below.
Signage at Acoma Pueblo
Signs at Acoma Pueblo sometimes use special diacritics for ejective consonants that differ from the symbols above, as shown in the table:
|General||⟨pʼ⟩||⟨tʼ⟩||⟨kʼ⟩||⟨sʼ⟩||⟨tsʼ⟩||⟨mʼ⟩||⟨wʼ⟩||⟨yʼ⟩||⟨nʼ shʼ srʼ tyʼ⟩|
Vowel sounds are represented straightforwardly in the existing spellings for Keresan. Each vowel sound is written using a unique letter or digraph (for long vowels and diphthongs). However, there are two competing representations for the vowel /ɨ/. Some versions simply use the IPA ⟨ɨ⟩ whereas others use the letter ⟨v⟩ (the sound /v/ as in veal does not occur in Keresan). Voiceless vowels have also been represented in two ways; either underlined or with a dot below (see table).
|Long vowels||Short vowels||Voiceless vowels|
|/ iː /||⟨ii⟩||/ i /||⟨i⟩||/ ɪ̥ /||⟨i̱⟩ or ⟨ị⟩|
|/ eː /||⟨ee⟩||/ e /||⟨e⟩||/ e̥ /||⟨e̱⟩ or ⟨ẹ⟩|
|/ ɨː /||⟨ɨɨ⟩ or ⟨vv⟩||/ ɨ /||⟨ɨ⟩ or ⟨v⟩||/ ɨ̥ /||⟨ɨ̱⟩ or ⟨ṿ⟩|
|/ ɑː /||⟨aa⟩||/ ɑ /||⟨a⟩||/ ḁ /||⟨a̱⟩ or ⟨ạ⟩|
|/ oː /||⟨oo⟩||/ o /||⟨o⟩||/ o̥ /||⟨o̱⟩ or ⟨ọ⟩|
|/ uː /||⟨uu⟩||/ u /||⟨u⟩||/ ʊ̥ /||⟨u̱⟩ or ⟨ụ⟩|
Diacritics for Tone
Tone may or may not be represented in the orthography of Keresan. When represented, four diacritics may be used above the vowel. Unlike the system used for Navajo, diacritics for tone are not repeated in long vowels.
|High tone||Low tone||Rising tone||Falling tone|
|Long Vowel||⟨áa⟩, ⟨úu⟩||⟨àa⟩, ⟨ùu⟩ or unmarked||⟨ǎa⟩, ⟨ǔu⟩ or ⟨aá⟩, ⟨uú⟩||⟨âa⟩, ⟨ûu⟩ or ⟨aà⟩, ⟨uù⟩|
|Short Vowel||⟨á⟩, ⟨ú⟩||⟨à⟩, ⟨ù⟩ or unmarked||-|
Keres Alphabet and Alphabetical order
Although Keresan is not normally written, there exists only one dictionary of the language in which words are listed in any given order. In this dictionary of Western Keres, digraphs count as single letters, although ejective consonants are not listed separately; occurring after their non-ejective counterparts. The glottal stop ⟨ʼ⟩ and long vowels (e.g. ⟨aa ee ii⟩ etc.) are not treated as separate letters.
Orthography marking tone
- Woodpecker and Coyote
- Ái dítʼîishu srbígà kʼánâaya dyáʼâʼu. Shʼée srbígà ái dyěitsị ái náyáa shdyɨ dyáʼa.
Orthography without tone marking
- Boas text
- Baanaʼa, egu kauʼseeʼe, atsi sʼaama-ee srayutse.
Keresan is a split-ergative language in which verbs denoting states (i.e. stative verbs) behave differently from those indexing actions, especially in terms of the person affixes they take. This system of argument marking is based on a split-intransitive pattern, in which subjects are marked differently if they are perceived as actors than from when they are perceived as undergoers of the action being described.
The morphology of Keresan is mostly prefixing, although suffixes and reduplication also occur. Keresan distinguishes nouns, verbs, numerals and particles as word classes. Nouns in Keresan do not normally distinguish case or number, but they can be inflected for possession, with distinct constructions for alienable and inalienable possession. Other than possession, Keresan nouns show no comprehensive noun classes.
|'John saw Bill.'|
Negation is doubly marked in Keresan. In addition to the adverb dzaadi, verbs index negation through a suffix (e.g. -u).
- Gukacha 'S/he saw her/him'
- Dzaadi gukachau 'S/he didn't see her/him'
The verb is a central grammatical category in Keres, conveying the most information about events in communicative acts. Through its morphemes, Keresan verbs code not only person and number of the initiator of the action (e.g. “Tammy drinks decaf”) as is common in Indo-European languages, but also how the initiator is implicated in the action. For instance, the three verbs that describe Tammy's actions in “Tammy kicked the ball” vs. “Tammy jumped” vs. “Tammy sneezed” require different levels of effort from Tammy, that is when kicking vs. jumping vs. sneezing.
Additionally, the person and number of the undergoer of the action are all coded on the verb (e.g. the word gukacha means “S/he sees her/him”, a full sentence in English). The ways the speaker assesses the action (i.e. evidentiality, as in “I think Tammy arrived from class” vs. “Tammy arrived from class”). Finally, the internal temporal structure of the action (i.e. aspect, as in “Tammy was sneezing in class” vs. “Tammy sneezed in class”) is also coded in Keresan verbs.
According to Maring (1967), the Keresan verb is organized around the following grammatical categories (pp. 39-40)
- Subject/Object relations
- Subject of intransitive verbs: marked by a prefix that distinguishes 3-4 persons in the singular (see below).
- Subject of transitive verbs: marked by a prefix that distinguishes 3-4 persons in the singular (see below).
- Object of transitive verbs: marked by a prefix that combines with the subject prefix, or by a suffix
- Number relations
- Temporal relations
- Future: is marked on the verb by a series of prefixes that also encode number
- Modality relations
- Voice relations
The verbal prefix
In Keres, the verbal prefix carries information from five different grammatical categories: argument role, modality, polarity, person and number. That is, a single Keresan verb prefix codes who initiated the action and how implicated that entity is (the subject/case), whom underwent the effects of the action (the direct object), the speaker's assessment of the action (the modality) and whether it occurred or not (polarity). On the other hand, information about when the action took place (i.e. tense) is expressed elsewhere in a clause, mostly by adverbs.
Keresan verbs distinguish three numbers: singular, dual (two entities) and plural (more than two entities); and four persons: first (the speaker), second (the hearer), third (a known, definite or salient entity being talked about) and fourth (a non-salient, unknown or indefinite entity being talked about, also known as obviative) persons. The plural and dual forms are often marked by reduplication of part of the stem (gukacha ‘s/he saw it’ vs guʼukacha ‘the two of them saw it’).
Languages encode two main types of actions: those in which the main participant initiates an action that produces change in an object (e.g. kick a ball, buy a gift, cook a dish, read a book); and those in which the action produces no (perceived) change in the world or that have no object (sneezing, breathing, growing, diving, etc.). Actions that take an object are encoded by transitive verbs, whereas those that take no object are expressed via intransitive verbs.
In Indo-European languages like English, all intransitive verbs behave similarly (‘They sneeze/breathe/dive/think’/etc.). In Keresan, actions that take no object are conceptualized in two distinct ways depending on how the initiator of the action is implicated. More active-like intransitive verbs (e.g. ‘to sneeze’) are coded through one set of morphemes, whereas actions conceptualized as involving the initiator at a lesser degree (e.g. ‘to believe’) are coded using a separate set of prefixes.
|Actions||Intransitive verb type|
|More||to write (-dyàatra), to steal as a thief (-chʼáwʼa), to have diarrhea (-ushchʼi),
to leave (-mi), to whistle (-srbiitsa), to sweat (-shdyuwàan’i)
|Less||to believe (-hima), to be born (-dyá), to sleep (-bái),
to be afraid (-tyishu), to forget (-dyúmidruwi)
Ideas expressed in Indo-European languages with adjectives are most often encoded by verbs in Keresan. That is, in Keresan one express the idea in the sentence ‘He is selfish’ by saying something along the lines of ‘He selfishes’. In such “actions”, the entity that is characterized by them is not implicated in the action directly (i.e. it's beyond their control), and thus belong in the Inactive intransitive category. The different sets of prefixes are shown below:
|Active intransive||Inactive intransitive|
|First||s(i)-||sudyàatra||I write||srk-||srkuhima||I believe|
|Second||sr-||srúuchʼáwʼa||you steal||kɨdr-||kɨdrâidyá||you were born|
|Third||k-||kashdyuwàanʼi||s/he sweats||dz-||dzíibái||he is sleeping|
|Subject||First ('me’)||Second (‘you’)||Third (‘her’/‘him’)||Fourth|
|I see you||I see her/him|
|you see me||you see her/him|
|s/he sees me||s/he sees you||s/he sees her/him||s/he sees something|
|one sees it|
Aspect in Keresan is signalled by suffixes.
|káajáni||it is raining|
|kájásɨ||it keeps raining|
Time (tense) adverbials
The category of tense is expressed in Keresan via adverbs that indicate when the action about which one is speaking took place.
|súwa||yesterday||naháayashi||day after tomorrow|
New words are coined through a number of roots that are combined to pre-existing ones. Compounding is a common strategy for word building, although derivation also occurs.
The Keresan numeral system is a base 10 system. Numerals 11-19, as well as those between the multiple of tens, are formed by adding the word kʼátsi (/ kʼátsʰɪ / 'ten') followed by the word dzidra (/tsɪtʂa/ 'more'). Numerals 20 and above are formed by adding a multiplicative adverb (-wa or -ya) to the base number and the word kʼátsi.
Loanwords from Spanish
European colonizers arriving in the Southwest US brought with them material culture and concepts that were unknown to the peoples living in the area. Words for the new ideas introduced by Spaniards were often borrowed into Keres directly from Early Modern Spanish, and a large number of these persists in Modern Keresan.
|Semantic domain||Modern Western Keres||Modern Spanish||English translation|
|Household items||kamárîita, kuchâaru, kujûuna, méesa, mendâan, kuwêeta||camarita, cuchara, colchón, mesa, ventana, cubeta (Mexico)||bed, spoon, mattress, table, window (glass), bucket|
|Social structure||gumbanêerụ, rái, murâatụ, merigâanạ, kumanirá, ninêeru||compañero, rey, mulato, americano(a), comunidad, dinero||workmate, king, black person, white person, community house, money|
|Food||géesu, arûusị, kawé, kurántụ, mantạgîiyụ, mandêegạ||queso, arroz, café, cilantro, mantequilla, manteca||cheese, rice, coffee, cilantro, butter, lard/butter|
|Animal husbandry||kawâayu, kanêeru, kujíinu, kurá, dûura, wáakạshị||caballo, carnero, cochino, corral, toro, vaca||horse, sheep, pen/corral, bull, cow|
|Religious concepts||míisa, Háasus Kuríistị, nachạwêena, guréesima||misa, Jesús Cristo, Noche Buena, Cuaresma||mass, Jesus Christ, Christmas, Lent|
|Days of the week||tamîikụ, rûunishị, mâatịsị, mérikụsị, sruwêewesị, yêenịsị, sâawaru||domingo, lunes, martes, miércoles, jueves, viernes, sábado||Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday|
|Reconstruction of||Keresan languages|
Selected Proto-Keresan reconstructions of plants, animals, and toponyms by Miller and Davis (1963):
no. gloss Proto-Keresan 10 wheat *ʔáṣánɪ 17 centipede *ʔíʔìˑdʸawa 19 cholla cactus *ʔiˑbánɪ 27 porcupine *ʔiˑṣ̍á 45 toad *bêˑrak̠ᴀ 63 turkey *cinᴀ 64 fox *cúsk̠ɪ 71 locust *c̍íˑga 72 Zia Pueblo *c̍íˑy̍á 78 kiva *c̆ídʸá 83 medicine man *č̇áyâˑni 84 hawk *č̇ɨ́ˑríga 85 horned toad *dabínᴜsk̠ᴀ 87 Santa Ana Pueblo *dámáyá 88 squash *dâˑni 91 corn husk *díˑskámí 93 dog *díyᴀ 98 bobcat *dʸáˑdʸᴜ 101 deer *dʸán̍é 104 gourd *dʸáˑwí 105 piñon pine *dʸèic̠ɪ 108 elk *dʸɨ́ˑṣᴀ 110 badger *dʸúˑbí 112 beans *gánami 114 seed *gáwɪc̠ɪ 119 bear *gúháyᴀ 124 yucca *háʔásc̐á 127 oak *ha̍ˑbánɪ 137 pine tree *hâˑniˑ 147 Jemez Pueblo *héˑmíšíˑ-cɪ, *héˑmíšíˑ-zé 149 turtle *héyᴀdʸɪ 157 willow *híẓᵻsk̍áwa 158 dove *húˑʔùˑga 161 yucca fruit *hùˑsk̍ani 169 antelope *kɨ́ˑc̠ɪ 175 wolf *k̍ákana 176 spider *k̍ámᴀsk̠ᵻ 198 mountain lion *mûˑk̍aiẓᴀ 200 buffalo *múšêiẓᴀ 201 soapweed *múšɪ 213 hummingbird *m̍îˑzᴀ 225 prairie dog *nɨ́t̠ɪ 232 bedbug *peséc̍uru 239 salamander *p̍águra 241 rabbit *rèˑdʸᴀ 246 woodpecker *sbíga 247 chicken *sbíˑná 251 meadowlark *sc̐áˑná 254 grasshopper *sc̐ár̍ɪ 260 crow *sc̐ɨ́r̍á 262 wild honey *sc̐úmᵻ 264 mosquito *sc̐úy̍úˑná 274 ant *síˑʔí 275 squirrel *síˑdʸᴀ 279 mouse *síyan̍ᵻ 282 bighorn sheep *skàˑsk̠ᴜ 286 bullsnake *sk̍áʔáˑdʸᴜ 287 fish *sk̍àˑšᵻ 291 peas *sk̍úrúˑná 293 dwarf corn *spíníní 306 parrot *šâˑwit̠ᴀ 307 flea, louse *šínaˑ 309 goose *šúˑdá 318 blue jay *ṣúisɪ 319 snake *ṣûˑwiˑ 342 abalone shell *w̍a̍ˑbɨ́nɪ 347 duck *w̍âˑyuṣᴀ 354 corn silk *yábášɪ 355 corn *yáˑčínɪ 356 mesquite *yêˑt̠ᴜ 357 worm *yúʔúbɨ́ 369 corn cob *y̍úˑskúm̍á
In popular media
- "Keres language, alphabet, and pronunciation". Omniglot. Retrieved April 28, 2021.
- Ian., Maddieson (1984). Patterns of sounds. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire]: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521113267. OCLC 10724704.
- Davis, Irvine (1964). The Language of Santa Ana Pueblo, Smithsonian Bulletin 191, Anthropological Papers, No. 69.
- A Comparative Sketch of Pueblo Languages: Phonology. Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics. 1987.
- Spencer, Robert F. (1946). The Phonemes of Keresan.
- Lachler, Jordan (2005). Grammar of Laguna Keres. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Dissertation.
- Valiquette, Hilaire (1990). A study for a lexicon of Laguna Keresan.
- Maring, Joel M. (1967). Grammar of Acoma Keresan. Indiana University Dissertation.
- Spencer, Robert (1947). "Spanish Loanwords in Keresan". Southwestern Journal of Anthropology. 3 (2): 130–146. doi:10.1086/soutjanth.3.2.3628729. S2CID 164169397.
- Brandt, Elizabeth (1981). "Native American Attitudes toward Literacy and Recording in the Southwest". Journal of the Linguistic Association of the Southwest. 4 (2): 185–195.
- "The Keres Language Project". The Keres Language Project. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
- L., Bybee, Joan (1994). The evolution of grammar : tense, aspect, and modality in the languages of the world. Perkins, Revere D. (Revere Dale), Pagliuca, William. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226086631. OCLC 29387125.
- 1936-, Givón, Talmy (2001). Syntax : an introduction. Volume 1 (Rev. ed.). Amsterdam: J. Benjamins. ISBN 1588110656. OCLC 70727915.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- Miller, Wick R.; Davis, Irvine (1963). "Proto-Keresan Phonology". International Journal of American Linguistics. 29 (4): 310–330. doi:10.1086/464748. S2CID 143519987.
- "Native Language Spotlighted During Coca-Cola Super Bowl Ad". Indian Country Today Media Network. 2014-02-03. Retrieved 2014-02-26.
- Boas, Franz (1923). "A Keresan text". International Journal of American Linguistics. 2 (3–4): 171–180. doi:10.1086/463743. S2CID 144375478.
- Campbell, Lyle (1997). American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. Oxford Studies in Anthropological Linguistics. 4. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-509427-5.
- Davis, Irvine (1963). "Bibliography of Keresan linguistic sources". International Journal of American Linguistics. 29 (3): 289–293. doi:10.1086/464745. S2CID 145202838.
- Davis, Irvine (1964). "The language of Santa Ana Pueblo". Anthropological Papers. Bulletin (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. 191 (69): 53–190. ISSN 0082-8882 – via U.S. Government Printing Office.
- Davis, Irvine (1966). "Acoma Grammar and Texts. Wick R. Miller". Review. American Anthropologist. 68 (3): 810–811. doi:10.1525/aa.1966.68.3.02a00450.
- Davis, Irvine (1968). "Acoma Grammar and Texts. By Wick R. Miller". Review. Language. 44 (1): 185–189. doi:10.2307/411485. JSTOR 411485.
- Davis, Irvine (1974). "Keresan–Caddoan comparisons". International Journal of American Linguistics. 40 (3): 265–267. doi:10.1086/465321. S2CID 143862548.
- Hawley, Florence (1950). "Keresan patterns of kinship and social organization". American Anthropologist. 52 (4): 499–512. doi:10.1525/aa.1950.52.4.02a00050.
- Kroskrity, Paul V. (1983). "On male and female speech in the Pueblo Southwest". International Journal of American Linguistics. 49 (1): 88–91. doi:10.1086/465769. S2CID 144870648.
- Lachler, Jordan (2005). A grammar of Laguna Keres (PhD thesis). University of New Mexico. ISBN 978-05-4273622-3.
- Maring, Joel M. (1975). "Speech variation in Acoma Keresan". In Kinkade, M. Dale; Hale, Kenneth L.; Werner, Oswald (eds.). Linguistics and Anthropology: In Honor of C. F. Voegelin. Lisse, Netherlands: Peter de Ridder Press. pp. 473–485. ISBN 978-90-316-0079-3.
- Mickey, Barbara H. (1956). "Acoma kinship terms". Southwestern Journal of Anthropology. 12 (3): 249–256. doi:10.1086/soutjanth.12.3.3629083. S2CID 156497463.
- Miller, Wick R. (1959). "Some notes on Acoma kinship terminology". Southwestern Journal of Anthropology. 15 (2): 179–184. doi:10.1086/soutjanth.15.2.3628805. S2CID 146921018.
- Miller, Wick R. (1959). "Spanish loanwords in Acoma: I". International Journal of American Linguistics. 25 (3): 147–153. doi:10.1086/464521. S2CID 222527399.
- Miller, Wick R. (1960). "Spanish loanwords in Acoma: II". International Journal of American Linguistics. 26 (1): 41–49. doi:10.1086/464552. S2CID 224808846.
- Miller, Wick R. (1965). Acoma Grammar and Texts. University of California Publications in Linguistics. 40. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISSN 0068-6484.
- Miller, Wick R.; Davis, Irvine (1963). "Proto-Keresan phonology". International Journal of American Linguistics. 29 (4): 310–330. doi:10.1086/464748. S2CID 143519987.
- Mithun, Marianne (1999). The Languages of Native North America. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29875-9.
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- Spencer, Robert F. (1947). "Spanish loanwords in Keresan". Southwestern Journal of Anthropology. 3 (2): 130–146. doi:10.1086/soutjanth.3.2.3628729. S2CID 164169397.
- Valiquette, Hilaire Paul (1990). A study for a lexicon of Laguna Keresan (PhD thesis). University of New Mexico.
- Walker, Willard (1967). "Acoma Grammar and Texts. By Wick R. Miller". Review. International Journal of American Linguistics. 33 (3): 254–257. doi:10.1086/464971.
- White, Leslie A. (1928). "Summary report of field work at Acoma". American Anthropologist. 30 (4): 559–568. doi:10.1525/aa.1928.30.4.02a00020.
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|Wiktionary has a list of reconstructed forms at Appendix:Proto-Keresan reconstructions|
- Nathan Romero, "Chochiti Keres: About Me and My Language: The politics of saving a vanishing language: The politics of writing", Language Documentation Training Center, University of Hawaii, Manoa (UHM)
- John Menaul (1880). Child's catechism in English and Laguna. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- Grammatical and Lexical Notes on the Keres Language (Acoma-Laguna Dialect) of the Keresan Stock
- English-Queres Language Vocabulary
- Keres Language Project – Keres Audio Dictionary