Carter Lake, Iowa

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Carter Lake, Iowa
City Office Building in Carter Lake, Iowa
City Office Building in Carter Lake, Iowa
Location of Carter Lake, Iowa
Location of Carter Lake, Iowa
U.S. Census Map
U.S. Census Map
Coordinates: 41°17′34″N 95°54′50″W / 41.29278°N 95.91389°W / 41.29278; -95.91389Coordinates: 41°17′34″N 95°54′50″W / 41.29278°N 95.91389°W / 41.29278; -95.91389
Country United States
State Iowa
CountyPottawattamie
Government
 • TypeMayor-council
Area
 • Total2.02 sq mi (5.23 km2)
 • Land1.87 sq mi (4.84 km2)
 • Water0.15 sq mi (0.39 km2)
Elevation
981 ft (299 m)
Population
 • Total3,785
 • Estimate 
(2018)[3]
3,784
 • Density2,024/sq mi (781.5/km2)
Time zoneUTC-6 (Central (CST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC-5 (CDT)
ZIP code
51510
Area code(s)712
FIPS code19-11215
GNIS feature ID0455192
WebsiteCity Website

Carter Lake is a city in Pottawattamie County, Iowa, United States, and a suburb of Omaha, Nebraska, and sits surrounding the south and west sides of the region's major airport, Eppley Airfield. The population was 3,785 at the 2010 census.

History[edit]

Carter Lake is an example of the border irregularities of the United States, being the only city in Iowa located west of the Missouri River. In March 1877, a flood redirected the course of the river 1.25 mi (2 km) to the southeast. The remnants of the old river course, called Saratoga Bend, became an oxbow lake, named Carter Lake.[4][5][6] Soon after the formation of the lake, the site became a flourishing recreational area. It included "a boathouse at the foot of Locust street, hotels and club houses were numerous and the lake was the scene of many a pleasant rowing and fishing party."[7]

In 1892, after extensive litigation between Iowa and Nebraska, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that Carter Lake belonged to Iowa in Nebraska v. Iowa, 143 U.S. 359 (1892).[8] Although the general rule is that state boundaries follow gradual changes in the course of a river, the Court ruled that an exception exists when a river avulses one of its bends. In 1972, the Supreme Court made another ruling on the circumstances of Carter Lake when it ruled on a boundary dispute between the two states in Nebraska v. Iowa, 406 U.S. 117 (1972).[9]

Although Carter Lake was legally considered part of Council Bluffs, residents paid city taxes but lacked the basic city services enjoyed by residents east of the Missouri.[10] The community successfully seceded from Council Bluffs in the 1920s, intending to become part of Omaha, Nebraska,[10] but Omaha did not want to pay to extend sewers or water lines.[citation needed]

Two early, separate amusement parks were located in Carter Lake: from 1905 to 1917, there was the Courtland Beach Amusement Park, and from 1917 to 1933, the Lakeview Amusement Park. The Munchoff Brothers, who were the original operators of Omaha's Krug Park, ran both parks; in 1917, they moved rides from Courtland to Lakeview. In 1945, one of the brothers donated the rides from the old parks to the World War II metal drives.[11]

On July 2, 1930, Carter Lake was incorporated as a city, in the state of Iowa.[12]:10

In the 1930s and 40s, Carter Lake became a gambling hot spot, as law enforcement was limited and because of its important location. At The Chez Paree, you "could listen to Sophie Tucker, have the best prime rib in town and enjoy a gambling raid or two." Patrons could "bet on any horse race in the United States," and the business was described as "the most active casino between Chicago and the West Coast.[13][12]:66

The mistaken belief that a defendant corporation located in Carter Lake was a legal resident of Nebraska resulted in another U.S. Supreme Court case, Owen Equipment & Erection Co. v. Kroger, 437 U.S. 365 (1978). The case clarified the law regarding ancillary jurisdiction, which allows claims based on state law to be heard in a federal court when related to a claim based on federal law.[14][15]

Geography[edit]

Iowa welcome sign on Abbott Drive (Iowa Highway 165), the main road between downtown Omaha and Eppley Airfield

Carter Lake is located at 41°17′34″N 95°54′50″W / 41.29278°N 95.91389°W / 41.29278; -95.91389 (41.292647, -95.913989).[16]

The city is surrounded on three sides by Omaha, Nebraska, and on the fourth by the Missouri River.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.02 square miles (5.23 km2), of which 1.87 square miles (4.84 km2) is land and 0.15 square miles (0.39 km2) is water.[1]

Carter Lake creates a geographic oddity for travelers going to Eppley Airfield, which it surrounds on the south and west. Consequently, travelers going to Eppley Airfield from anywhere except North Omaha will go through Carter Lake, Iowa. It has caused great confusion when travelers not used to the area go through and see a "Welcome to Iowa" sign on their way to and from the airport.[10]

Demographics[edit]

Historical populations
YearPop.±%
1940846—    
19501,183+39.8%
19602,287+93.3%
19703,268+42.9%
19803,438+5.2%
19903,200−6.9%
20003,248+1.5%
20103,785+16.5%
20183,784−0.0%
Source:"U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2020-03-29. and Iowa Data Center
Source:
U.S. Decennial Census[17]

2000 census[edit]

As of the census[18] of 2000, there were 3,248 people, 1,221 households, and 914 families residing in the city. The population density is 1,799.7 people per square mile (696.7/km²). There were 1,292 housing units at an average density of 715.9 per square mile (277.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 96.71% White, 0.25% African American, 0.74% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.86% from other races, and 1.20% from two or more races. 2.89% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 1,221 households, out of which 32.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.4% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.1% were non-families. 20.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.04.

Age/Gender Breakdown: 25.9% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 24.3% from 45 to 64, and 12.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,851, and the median income for a family was $42,794. Males had a median income of $30,946 versus $23,309 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,758. 7.1% of the population and 4.9% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 11.6% of those under the age of 18 and 2.9% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

2010 census[edit]

As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 3,785 people, 1,388 households, and 997 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,024.1 inhabitants per square mile (781.5/km2). There were 1,481 housing units at an average density of 792.0 per square mile (305.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 90.3% White, 1.0% African American, 0.8% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 5.8% from other races, and 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.5% of the population.

There were 1,388 households of which 37.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.5% were married couples living together, 17.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 7.4% had a male householder with no wife present, and 28.2% were non-families. 22.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.16.

The median age in the city was 36.1 years. 28.3% of residents were under the age of 18; 8.3% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 25.1% were from 25 to 44; 25.5% were from 45 to 64; and 12.8% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.4% male and 50.6% female.

Politics[edit]

The current mayor of Carter Lake is Ron Cumberledge, elected on November 7, 2017.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2012-07-02. Retrieved 2012-05-11.
  2. ^ a b "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-05-11.
  3. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved November 2, 2019.
  4. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Carter Lake
  5. ^ "Levi Carter Park". City of Omaha Parks and Recreation. Archived from the original on April 10, 2009. Retrieved December 30, 2008.
  6. ^ "Carter Lake History". 2007-09-24. Archived from the original on 2007-09-23.
  7. ^ "The Rise and Fall of Cut-Off Lake." June 1, 1890. Omaha Sunday Bee 19(342): 9.
  8. ^ "Nebraska v. Iowa", 143 U.S. 359 (1892).
  9. ^ Nebraska v. Iowa, 406 U.S. 117 (1972).
  10. ^ a b c Harding, David (2010-08-22). "What's the deal with Carter Lake". Omaha World-Herald.
  11. ^ "A History of Sand Point Beach and the Lakeview Amusement Park", Fletcher Sasse, Adam. NorthOmahaHistory.com. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
  12. ^ a b Schreier, John (2017). Carter Lake: A Slice of Iowa in Nebraska. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 9781625857194.
  13. ^ Transcript to "Nebraska's gambling history" Archived 2008-10-14 at the Wayback Machine, Nebraska ETV. Retrieved 11/20/08.
  14. ^ Owen Equipment & Erection Co. v. Kroger, 437 U.S. 365 (1978).
  15. ^ Text of Owen Equipment & Erection Co. v. Kroger, 437 U.S. 365 (1978) is available from:  Findlaw  Google Scholar  Justia  Library of Congress  Oyez (oral argument audio) 
  16. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  17. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  18. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  19. ^ mbell@nonpareilonline.com, Mike Bell. "Carter Lake Elections: Cumberledge bests ex-mayor; Wahl is elected". The Daily Nonpareil - Council Bluffs, Iowa. Retrieved 2019-06-19.

External links[edit]